ART or Assisted Reproductive technology is a common term used to describe any and all fertility treatments where the egg and the sperm are manipulated. Usually, ART involves the removal of the eggs from the woman’s ovaries through surgery and binding them with the sperm in a laboratory. Once they are fertilized, it is returned to the woman’s body. However, ART does not include procedures where only the sperm is manipulated, or the woman takes medicines to stimulate the ovaries, without extracting any eggs.
Types of ART
• IVF (In vitro fertilization) During this procedure, the woman’s eggs are retrieved and fertilized in a laboratory with a sperm and then once the embryo develops, it is put back inside the uterus.
• GIFT (gamete Intrafallopian transfer) Here, the specialist will use an instrument known as the laparoscope to help the unfertilized eggs and sperm travel to the fallopian tube. This is done through a small incision in the stomach.
• ZIFT (Zygote intrafallopian transfer) During this procedure, the eggs are fertilized with the sperm in a laboratory just like in IVF and then it is transferred to the fallopian tube using a laparoscope, just like in GIFT.
• TET (Tubal Embryo transfer) During this procedure, the embryo is transferred at a more advanced stage and implanted in the fallopian tube.
• ICSI (Intracytoplasmic sperm injection) Here, the sperm is directly injected into an egg, which is cultured and then transferred back like in IVF.
Art can also be categorized as;
• Nondonor – where the woman uses her own eggs
• Donor – woman borrows eggs from another woman
• Fresh – The embryos are newly fertilized
• Frozen – They are the previously fertilized and then frozen, and now thawed embryos
ART and success
A woman’s age plays a major role in the success of ART. However, the other factors that affect the success rates are; the reason of infertility, the hospital and the doctors, type of ART, if the egg is frozen or fresh, and if the embryo is frozen or fresh. According to a 2003 CDC report on ART, the success rates were;
Women under the age of 35 – 37.3%
Women between 35-37 – 30.2%
Women between 37-40 – 20.2%
Women between 41-42 – 11.0%
Even though ART is a little expensive and time-consuming, it has been a boon for several couples. The most common complication one goes through with ART is multiple fetuses. However, with the right doctors, you can minimize or avoid this complication. If you want to know more or book a consultation, contact your nearest Apollo fertility center. The experts will offer you the right advice.
Who usually opts for ART?
Couples suffering from;
• Tubal factors
• Ovulatory dysfunction
• Diminished Ovarian reserve or low ovarian reserve
• Uterine factors
• Low sperm count or problems with sperm production
• Unexplained causes