Causes & Treatment

In males

About 10-15% of couples face problems with fertility. One-third of such couples have been diagnosed to have problems with male fertility.

Problems

  • Reduction in the sperm count (oligozoospermia)
  • Abnormality in the shape of the sperm
  • Abnormality in the sperm motility
  • Complete absence of sperm motility
  • Improper delivery of sperms due to obstruction
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Sexual problems
  • Complete absence of sperms (azoospermia)

Causes– The underlying causes for fertility problems include:

  • Genetic and birth defects like undescended testicles
  • Varicocele
  • Infections and injury
  • Vasectomy
  • Problems due to prostate
  • Lack of ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation
  • Problems in hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland result in impaired hormone levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Leutinizing Hormone, Testosterone

Treatment options

The treatment options depend on the underlying cause. It may include:

  • Antibiotic medications for treatment of infections
  • Surgery such as Vasectomy reversal, epididymal repair, varicocele repair
  • Medications such as Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) is injected or clomiphene citrate tablets are given orally to improve sperm preoduction
  • Sperm retrieval techniques such as Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA), Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) used for blockage in sperm transport
  • Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI), In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) are used to treat problems of sperm motility.

In females

About 10-15% of couples are facing problems with fertility. One-third of such couples have been diagnosed to have problems with female fertility.

Problems

  • Problem in ovulation
  • Problem in fallopian tube
  • Problem in uterus
  • Hormonal problem

Causes

There could be many causes of the fertility problems in the females.

  • Infections such as gonorrhoea and Chlamydia
  • Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Premature ovarian insufficiency
  • Increase in prolactin levels
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Endometriosis
  • Dysfunction of hypothalamus and pituitary gland in secreting Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Leutinizing Hormoe (LH), Estrogens

Treatments options

The treatment options depend upon the underlying cause diagnosed.

  • Antibiotic medications for treatment of infections
  • Surgery such as hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, etc
  • Medical therapy with injectable Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Leutinizing Hormone for ovulation induction
  • Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI), In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

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