What is Sperm Donation?
Sperm is the male sex gamete which fertilizes the egg to form an embryo that ultimately becomes a baby. Out of millions of sperm, only one fertilises the egg. In the case of twins, triplets or more, it might be more than one sperm fertilizing the egg. Fertilising the egg completes the reproductive cycle and the embryo is implanted in the uterus of the woman.
Sperm donation is a process of a fertile man donating semen which is the fluid that consists of the sperm. The semen is released by a male during the ejaculation process. When the absence of an appropriate sperm count or healthy sperm hinders the process of fertilization, the doctors may recommend the harmless process of sperm donation for achieving pregnancy.
The donated sperm is injected directly into the reproductive organs of the female through the process of intrauterine insemination. Alternatively, the mature eggs from the female trying to conceive are fertilized with the donor sperm in the lab through in-vitro fertilization.
Why is Sperm Donation necessary?
Sperm donation is required to help address the following conditions.
- Male partner with low sperm count, the complete absence of sperm or lack of healthy sperm
- Poor embryo development due to sperm incompatibility
- Failed fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection
- Same-sex couples willing to conceive a child
- Single women who want to conceive and give birth to their child
Sperm donation can also be made by a young male partner who would like to preserve his sperm for future use. Men in their 20s or 30s may wish to donate sperm and preserve it for fertilization to start a family late.
However, there are a few factors that are evaluated before selecting a healthy sperm donor:
- Age – Most fertility clinics or sperm banks choose a healthy sperm donor with an age group of 18 to 39 years.
- Genetics – There are series of genetic tests donors to check for any abnormalities or genetic diseases that might impact the child
- Semen Quality – The semen is tested for measuring sperm count, sperm motility, and morphology or sperm size
- History – Medical and sexual history of the sperm donor is considered for up to two generations. Also, a drug test is done.
What are the risk factors of sperm donation?
Sperm donation is a popular way to help a couple or single woman conceive and become a parent. However, it does come with its own set of complications or risks:
- Despite all checks and proper cryopreservation, sperm might end up not being viable at the time of use.
- Sperm rejection is commonly caused by incompatibility between donor and recipient. Hormone level, uterine lining and other factors in a woman might reject or kill even healthy sperm.
- Possibility of the presence of a recessive gene
What happens throughout a sperm donation procedure?
Once all the tests and factors are considered, the sperm donor candidate is asked to refrain from any activities that might lead to ejaculation at least 3 to 5 days before the donation.
- Apollo fertility clinic conducts the sperm donation process. The sperm donor is asked to masturbate in a private room and collect the semen in a sterile container provided by the clinic.
- The sperm sample is then cryopreserved for around six months. There are tests conducted to assess the quality of the sperm or any possibility of infectious disease.
You can request an appointment easily at Apollo Fertility, Banjara Hills, for a consultation by calling 1860-500-4424.
After sperm donation, what happens?
Once the sperm donation procedure is completed, the sperm sample is cryopreserved and used during the fertilization procedure. In the artificial insemination (AI) process, the sperm is placed in the vaginal tract of the female body during ovulation. During IVF, sperm is fertilised with egg in-vitro and the embryo is placed in the female uterus. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is also another method which is commonly attempted. In this technique, the sperm is placed in the female’s uterus with the help of a catheter.
A healthy sperm donor is aged between 18 to 39 years. The donor is checked for genetics for the presence of any abnormalities or genetic disease. Anyone with good semen quality with no bad medical history can become a sperm donor.
There is no set time span but a frozen sperm is not viable and last for up to 12 to 15 years and sometimes even above.
Make sure to get all the necessary tests done to understand sperm quality. The professional at Apollo Clinic Banjara Hills will help you do the tests. Once the test results are positive, do not ejaculate for at least 3 to 5 days before sperm donation.
Yes, the frozen sperm can be retrieved and fertilized with an egg in-vitro. The embryo is then implanted in the uterus of a woman.
The cost of sperm donation for freezing purposes starts from Rs 10000. However, for IVF it is much higher.