Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Regulation Act, 2021

The Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021 is a legislation in India that governs and supervises the practice of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) services and clinics. It aims to ensure ethical practices, prevent misuse, and safeguard the rights of individuals seeking these procedures.


  • Regulate and supervise ART clinics and ART banks (facilities that store gametes or embryos).
  • Prevent misuse of ART procedures.
  • Ensure safe and ethical practices in ART services.
  • Address infertility issues and allow access to ART for those who medically require it.
  • Regulate research and development in the field of ART.

Key Provisions:

  • Registration: Mandatory registration for all ART clinics and ART banks with the appropriate authority.
  • Eligibility: Specifies eligibility criteria for couples or women seeking ART services, including age limitations and medical conditions.
  • National and State Boards: Establishes National and State Boards to oversee the implementation of the Act and address ethical concerns.
  • Counselling: Mandates counselling for couples or individuals considering ART to ensure informed decision-making.
  • Record Keeping and Reporting: Requires ART clinics and banks to maintain detailed records and submit reports to the designated authorities.
  • Prohibitions: Prohibits practices like sex selection, commercial surrogacy (paying the surrogate mother), and exploitation of women.
  • Penalties: Outlines penalties for violating the provisions of the Act.


The Act aims to bring transparency and accountability to the ART sector in India. Here are some potential benefits:

  • Improved standards of care: Standardized practices and regulations can lead to better quality care for patients seeking ART services.
  • Protection of rights: The Act safeguards the rights of individuals using ART procedures, including informed consent and ethical treatment.
  • Prevention of misuse: Regulations can help prevent the exploitation of women and unethical practices in surrogacy arrangements.

It's important to note that the Act does have some limitations:

  • Applicability: The Act only applies to fertility treatments within India. Cross-border surrogacy arrangements might have separate regulations.
  • Strict eligibility criteria: Some may find the eligibility criteria for accessing ART services in India to be restrictive.

Overall, the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021 is a significant step towards regulating ART practices in India. It aims to promote ethical and safe procedures while addressing infertility concerns and protecting the rights of those seeking these services.

Differences Between ART Clinics and ART Banks

ART clinics and ART banks are both important players in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART), but they serve distinct purposes. Here's a breakdown of the key differences:

ART Clinics:

  • Function: ART clinics are medical facilities that provide a comprehensive range of services related to infertility diagnosis, treatment, and assisted reproduction.
  • Services Offered:
    • Evaluation and diagnosis: They perform tests and assessments to identify the cause of infertility in couples or individuals.
    • Treatment options: Offer various infertility treatments like ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination (IUI), and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
    • Monitoring and support: Provide medical monitoring and support throughout the treatment process, including medication management and emotional counseling.
    • Egg retrieval and sperm collection: These procedures might be done within the clinic or in collaboration with a laboratory.
  • Staff: ART clinics are staffed with qualified medical professionals like reproductive endocrinologists, embryologists, nurses, and counselors.
  • Focus: ART clinics focus on the entire patient journey, from diagnosis and treatment planning to pregnancy and beyond.

ART Banks:

  • Function: ART banks are specialized facilities that procure, store, and supply sperm, oocytes (eggs), and sometimes embryos for use in assisted reproduction procedures. They act as a resource for ART clinics and patients seeking donor gametes or embryos.
  • Services Offered:
    • Gamete and embryo acquisition: ART banks recruit and screen sperm and egg donors through a rigorous medical and psychological evaluation process. They might also receive donated embryos from couples undergoing IVF.
    • Storage and management: Donated gametes and embryos are cryopreserved (frozen) using advanced techniques and stored in secure facilities with liquid nitrogen tanks.
    • Matching and distribution: ART banks work with clinics and patients to match them with suitable sperm, egg, or embryo donors based on pre-determined criteria like blood type, physical characteristics, and medical history.
  • Staff: ART banks typically have staff with expertise in donor recruitment, screening, cryopreservation, and logistics related to gamete and embryo distribution.
  • Focus: ART banks focus on providing a reliable source of screened donor gametes and embryos for assisted reproduction.

Summary Table:

Feature ART Clinic ART Bank
Function Provide infertility diagnosis, treatment & assisted reproduction services Procure, store & supply sperm, eggs & embryos
Services Offered Evaluation, treatment, monitoring, egg retrieval, sperm collection Gamete/embryo acquisition, storage, matching & distribution
Staff Reproductive endocrinologists, embryologists, nurses, counselors Staff with expertise in donor screening, cryopreservation, logistics
Focus Patient journey: diagnosis to pregnancy & beyond Providing a source of screened donor gametes & embryos

Additional Points:

  • Regulations: Both ART clinics and banks are subject to regulations established by governing bodies to ensure ethical practices, safety standards, and patient well-being.
  • Cost: Costs associated with ART services and donor gametes can vary depending on the clinic, location, and type of donor sought.

In conclusion, ART clinics and ART banks play different but complementary roles in assisted reproduction. ART clinics provide the medical expertise and treatment procedures, while ART banks supply the essential biological materials (sperm, eggs, embryos) for some of these procedures.

Levels of ART Clinics

The existence and structure of tiered ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) clinics can vary depending on the country and its specific regulations. Here's a breakdown of some possibilities:


In India, the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021, establishes a two-tier system for ART clinics:

  • Level 1 Clinic: These clinics can only perform basic infertility procedures like intrauterine insemination (IUI).
  • Level 2 Clinic: These clinics are equipped to handle more complex procedures like In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer.

Other Countries:

While some countries might have a similar tiered system based on the complexity of procedures permitted, others may not have a formal classification system. The specific requirements and regulations for ART clinics can vary significantly.

Here are some general factors that might influence the classification or capabilities of ART clinics (these are not universally applied):

  • Level of procedures offered: Basic procedures (IUI) versus more advanced procedures (IVF, ICSI).
  • Success rates: Clinics might track and advertise their success rates, although these can be influenced by various factors.
  • Lab facilities and equipment: The sophistication of the lab and equipment used for sperm preparation, egg handling, and embryo culture can differ.
  • Staff expertise: The experience and qualifications of the fertility specialists, embryologists, and nurses can vary.

Important Considerations:

  • Accreditation: Look for clinics with accreditation from reputable organizations in your country.
  • Success rates: While success rates are a factor, consider them cautiously as they can be influenced by patient demographics and selection criteria.
  • Transparency and communication: Choose a clinic that provides clear information about procedures, costs, and success rates.
  • Comfort level: Feel comfortable asking questions and discussing your concerns with the clinic staff.

Overall, while there might be a tiered system in some countries, it's crucial to do your research when choosing an ART clinic. Focus on factors like accreditation, expertise, communication, and your personal comfort level to make an informed decision for your specific needs.

Responsibilities of ART Clinics and Banks as per the Act

The Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021 (ART Act) in India lays out various responsibilities for ART Clinics and ART Banks. Here's a breakdown of their key duties:

General Duties (for both ART Clinics and Banks):

  • Registration: Both clinics and banks must be mandatorily registered with the appropriate authority designated by the central government.
  • Maintenance of Records: Accurate and detailed records of all procedures, treatments, egg and sperm donors, and patient information must be meticulously maintained.
  • Informed Consent: Written informed consent must be obtained from patients or commissioning couples regarding all procedures, risks, and associated costs involved in ART treatment. This includes consent for storage and use of gametes and embryos.
  • Counselling: Proper pre and post-counselling services addressing psychological, social, and legal aspects of ART treatment should be offered to patients.
  • Confidentiality: Strict confidentiality must be maintained regarding patient information and donor identities.

Specific Duties for ART Clinics:

  • Eligibility Assessment: Clinics are responsible for assessing the eligibility of couples or individuals for ART procedures based on the Act's guidelines (age criteria, medical conditions etc.).
  • Treatment Procedures: Only ART procedures permitted under the Act can be performed by qualified personnel.
  • Sex Selection Prohibition: Sex selection of embryos for non-medical reasons is strictly prohibited.
  • Reporting: ART clinics are obligated to report all ART procedures performed, their outcome, and any complications to the National Registry of ART Clinics and Banks.

Specific Duties for ART Banks:

  • Donor Recruitment: Sperm and egg donors must be recruited following the Act's guidelines, which include age limitations, mandatory medical screening, and counselling.
  • Gamete Storage and Handling: ART Banks are responsible for the safe storage and proper handling of eggs, sperm, and embryos under controlled conditions.
  • Donor Identity: Confidentiality of donor identity must be maintained, adhering to the Act's provisions on anonymity or non-anonymity based on the donor's consent.
  • Supply of Gametes and Embryos: Gametes and embryos can only be supplied to registered ART clinics and for bonafide ART procedures as per the Act.

Overall, the ART Act aims to ensure ethical practices, transparency, and patient safety in the field of Assisted Reproductive Technology. ART Clinics and Banks are entrusted with significant responsibilities to comply with these regulations and provide high-quality ART services.

Who Can Approach Fertility Clinics for Treatment?

In India, fertility clinics can be approached by a variety of individuals and couples facing infertility challenges. Here's a breakdown of who can seek treatment:


  • Married couples: This is the most common scenario, with heterosexual couples seeking fertility treatment to conceive a child.


  • Single women: Unmarried or widowed women can now legally seek fertility treatments in India, including IVF with donor sperm, to become single mothers.


The Surrogacy Regulation Act, 2021, restricts gestational surrogacy in India to altruistic arrangements (no commercial compensation for the carrier) and only for:

  • Married Indian couples: Infertile Indian couples who are legally married can explore gestational surrogacy as an option for building a family.
  • Ever-married Indian women: Widowed or divorced Indian women can also consider gestational surrogacy for becoming mothers.

Other factors to consider:

  • Age: While there's no scientific age limit for fertility treatment, success rates, especially with procedures like IVF, tend to decline with advancing maternal age. Discussing this with a fertility specialist is important. But legally the age limit prescribed by ART Act is 21 to 55 for males & 21 to 50 for females.
  • Medical conditions: Individuals with underlying medical conditions that impact fertility can seek evaluation and treatment options at fertility clinics.
  • Legal requirements: It's crucial to consult with a lawyer specializing in family law and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to understand legalities and documentation requirements for fertility treatments, especially if considering procedures like surrogacy or sperm/egg donation.

Finding a fertility clinic:

  • Accreditation: Look for clinics accredited by bodies like the National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers (NABH) or the Federation of Obstetric and Gynaecological Societies of India (FOGSI).
  • Success rates: While success rates can vary, inquire about the clinic's experience and success rates with specific procedures you're considering.
  • Transparency and costs: Ensure the clinic provides transparent information about treatment options, costs involved, and any additional expenses.

Remember: Consulting a qualified fertility specialist is the first step. They can assess your individual situation, diagnose any underlying causes of infertility, and recommend the most suitable treatment options based on your medical history, personal preferences, and legal considerations.

Eligibility Criteria for ART Procedures

The eligibility criteria for ART procedures in India are laid out in the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021 and the National Guidelines for Accreditation, Supervision & Regulation of ART Clinics in India. Here's a breakdown of the key points for who can access ART services in India:

Commissioning Parties (Intended Parents):

  • Marital Status: ART services are generally restricted to married couples in India. However, there's a recent amendment allowing ever-married single Indian women (widows or divorced) to access certain ART procedures.
  • Age: The woman (intended mother) should be between 21 and 50 years old. The man (intended father) can be between 21 and 55 years old.
  • Infertility: Couples must be infertile, meaning they haven't been able to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse or have a proven medical condition preventing conception.

Additional Considerations:

  • Medical Conditions: Individuals with certain medical conditions that could pose a health risk to themselves or the baby during pregnancy might not be eligible for ART procedures.
  • Counselling: Counselling is mandatory before undergoing ART procedures to ensure informed decision-making and address any emotional or psychological concerns.


  • Surrogacy Regulation Act, 2021: This law governs gestational surrogacy in India. It restricts surrogacy to altruistic arrangements (no commercial compensation for the gestational carrier).
  • Intended Parents: Only married Indian couples are eligible to consider gestational surrogacy under the current law.

It is important to note that these are general guidelines, and specific eligibility criteria might vary depending on the clinic and the type of ART procedure.

Common ART Procedures

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) encompasses a variety of medical procedures used to help couples or individuals achieve pregnancy when natural conception isn't possible. Here's a breakdown of some common ART procedures:

  1. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF):

    • This is the most widely known ART procedure.
    • Steps involved:
      • Ovulation induction: Medications stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple mature eggs in one cycle.
      • Egg retrieval: Eggs are collected from the ovaries through a minimally invasive procedure.
      • Sperm retrieval: Semen is collected from the male partner or a sperm donor.
      • Fertilization: Eggs and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish for fertilization to occur. Alternatively, ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) can be used to inject a single sperm directly into the egg.
      • Embryo culture: Fertilized eggs (embryos) are monitored for development within a controlled laboratory environment.
      • Embryo transfer: One or two healthy embryos are selected and transferred into the uterus through a catheter.
      • Implantation and pregnancy: If implantation occurs, pregnancy progresses like a natural conception.
  2. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI):

    • A simpler procedure compared to IVF.
    • Steps involved:
      • Sperm preparation: Sperm is processed in a laboratory setting to isolate healthy, motile sperm.
      • Ovulation timing: The procedure is timed around ovulation to increase the chances of fertilization.
      • Sperm insemination: Prepared sperm is inserted directly into the uterus through a catheter to facilitate fertilization.
  3. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI):

    • A specialized technique used during IVF to achieve fertilization, particularly when sperm quality is a concern.
    • A single healthy sperm is directly injected into the cytoplasm of the egg, bypassing the need for sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida on its own.
  4. Donor eggs, sperm, or embryos:

    • Donor eggs, sperm, or embryos from compatible donors can be used in ART procedures when the intended parents have fertility issues.
  5. Gestational surrogacy:

    • A woman (gestational carrier) carries and delivers a pregnancy for another couple (intended parents) who are unable to conceive or carry a pregnancy themselves. The gestational carrier has no genetic link to the baby.

Choosing the Right ART Procedure: The most suitable ART procedure depends on the specific cause of infertility and the couple's individual situation. Consulting with a fertility specialist is crucial to determine the most appropriate approach to achieve a successful pregnancy.

Understanding Donor Gametes

Donor gametes refers to sperm or eggs used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that come from someone other than the intended parent(s). This allows individuals or couples facing infertility challenges to conceive and have children.

Breakdown of the Concept:

  • Sperm donation: A sperm donor provides healthy sperm that is used to fertilize the eggs of the intended parent (usually through IVF) or another egg donor.
  • Egg donation: An egg donor provides healthy eggs that are fertilized with sperm from the intended father (or sperm donor) to create embryos for implantation.

Reasons for Using Donor Gametes:

  • Male infertility: If the male partner has low sperm count, poor sperm motility, or abnormal sperm morphology, sperm donation can be an option.
  • Female infertility: Women with absent or damaged ovaries, underlying medical conditions that make pregnancy risky, or who are single and wish to have a child might use egg donation.
  • Genetic concerns: In some cases, donor gametes might be used to avoid passing on genetic conditions to offspring.

Types of Donation:

  • Anonymous: The identity of the donor is not disclosed to the recipient(s).
  • Directed: The recipient(s) know the identity of the donor, which could be a friend, family member, or someone found through a donor agency.

Legal and Ethical Considerations:

  • Legal aspects: Legal aspects vary by region. Consulting with an attorney specializing in family law is recommended to understand the legal implications of using donor gametes.
  • Ethical considerations: Ethical considerations surrounding donor anonymity, potential emotional impact on children conceived with donor gametes, and compensation for donors are important aspects to discuss with your doctor or counselor.

Overall, donor gametes offer a valuable option for many individuals and couples struggling with infertility or wanting to build a family. If you're considering this path, it's important to understand the medical, legal, and ethical aspects involved to make informed decisions.

Finding an Egg Donor under ART Act

The Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2021 (ART Act) governs egg donation in India. Here's a breakdown of the key points on how to find an egg donor under this act:

Authorized Institutions:

Egg donation can only be facilitated through ART banks authorized under the ART act. These banks are typically associated with fertility clinics or hospitals offering ART procedures.

Who can be an Egg Donor?

The ART Act lays down specific criteria for egg donors:

  • Age: The donor must be between 23 and 35 years old. (Specific age limits might vary slightly depending on the ART bank's policies).
  • Health: The donor must be in good physical and mental health.
  • Medical screening: Thorough medical screening is mandatory to rule out any genetic conditions or infectious diseases.
  • Confidentiality: Both donor and recipient identities are confidential under the Act.

Finding an Egg Donor:

You likely won't be able to directly choose an egg donor. Here's a general process:

  1. Consult a fertility specialist: Discuss your need for an egg donor with a qualified fertility specialist at a clinic with an authorized ART bank.
  2. Evaluation and Matching: The clinic will evaluate your medical history and partner's medical profile (if applicable) to determine eligibility for egg donation and help match you with a suitable donor based on factors like blood type, physical characteristics, and (if possible) ethnic background.
  3. Donor pool: The ART bank might have its own pool of pre-screened egg donors or collaborate with other authorized banks to find a compatible match.

Important Considerations:

  • Altruistic Donation: The ART Act in India prohibits commercial surrogacy and egg donation. Compensation to the donor is not permitted. Egg donation in India is meant to be an altruistic act.
  • Legal Agreement: A legal agreement outlining the rights and responsibilities of all parties involved (intended parents, donor, clinic) will be established before proceeding.
  • Counseling: Counseling is recommended for both the intended parents and the egg donor to understand the emotional and legal aspects of egg donation.

Finding a Fertility Clinic:

The GOI website for ART & surrogacy maintains a list of registered clinics & banks. Moreover, Indian Society for Assisted Reproduction (ISAR) maintains a directory of authorized fertility clinics across India. You can search for a clinic in your region that adheres to the ART act and has a functional ART bank.

Additional Notes:

  • The legalities and processes surrounding ART procedures can be complex. It's crucial to consult with a reputable fertility clinic that follows the guidelines set forth by the ART Act.
  • Be prepared for some wait time, as finding a suitable egg donor through an authorized ART bank might take time depending on the matching process.

Requesting Donor Sperm from Banks

In India, due to the recent legal regulations, accessing sperm donation for fertility treatments has a specific legal framework. Here's a breakdown of the key points to consider:

Legal Landscape:

  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021: This act governs fertility treatments in India, including sperm donation. It restricts access to sperm donation to altruistic arrangements only. This means there's no commercial compensation for the sperm donor.
  • Eligibility: Currently, only married Indian couples or ever-married single Indian women (widows or divorced) are eligible to seek sperm donation for assisted reproductive technologies like IVF.

Finding a Sperm Donor:

Since commercial sperm banks are not permitted in India, locating a sperm donor can be done through authorized channels:

  • Fertility Clinics: Many reputable fertility clinics in India have established sperm donor programs that adhere to the legal guidelines. These clinics maintain a pool of anonymous sperm donors who have undergone mandatory medical and psychological screening.
  • Government Hospitals: Some government hospitals with established IVF programs might also have sperm donor options.

The Process:

The specific process for requesting sperm donation can vary depending on the clinic or hospital you choose. Here's a general outline:

  1. Consultation: An initial consultation with a fertility specialist at your chosen clinic or hospital will be necessary. They will discuss your situation, eligibility for sperm donation based on the regulations, and explain the sperm donor program details.
  2. Donor Selection: Clinics will usually have a pool of anonymous sperm donors with detailed profiles (including physical characteristics, medical history, and educational background) that you can review. Selection criteria might include blood type, ethnicity, and other factors to ensure a certain degree of compatibility with intended parents.
  3. Counselling: Counselling sessions are often recommended for couples or individuals considering sperm donation to understand the emotional and legal implications.
  4. Matching and Legal Agreements: Once a suitable donor is identified, the clinic will facilitate the matching process and ensure all legal agreements regarding consent and anonymity are established.

Cost Considerations:

There should be no upfront payment or commercial compensation to the sperm donor according to the regulations. However, there might be associated costs for:

  • Clinic fees: The fertility clinic may have fees for screening procedures, matching services, and administrative processes related to sperm donation.
  • Treatment costs: The cost of IVF or other fertility treatments using donor sperm will also apply.

Important Considerations:

  • Waiting times: Due to the limitations on commercial sperm banks and the legal framework, waiting times for sperm donation can vary depending on the clinic and the availability of compatible donors.
  • Limited choices: The options for donor selection might be limited compared to commercial sperm banks in other countries.
  • Emotional aspects: Sperm donation can raise emotional considerations for intended parents. Discussing these openly with a counsellor can be helpful.

Bringing Your Own Donor for Fertility Treatment

The ability to bring your own donor for fertility treatment in India is restricted based on the legality of surrogacy in the country. Here's a breakdown of the key points:

  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021: This law governs Assisted Reproductive Technology in India.
  • Egg/Sperm donation: The law doesn't explicitly address bringing your own egg or sperm donor for gestational surrogacy. However, the ethical guidelines generally promote using known donors within the family circle to avoid exploitation.

Therefore, based on current regulations:

  • You cannot bring in a paid egg or sperm donor from outside for your treatment.
  • You might be able to consider using an egg or sperm donor if they are willing to be altruistic donors and meet the criteria set forth by the clinic (e.g., blood relatives in some cases) and should be routed through the ART bank.


  • Consult with reputable fertility clinics in India. They can provide you with the latest information on legalities and permitted practices related to egg/sperm donation and surrogacy arrangements.
  • Explore legal resources or consult with a lawyer specializing in family law and assisted reproductive technologies to understand the legalities and potential implications in more detail.

It's important to be aware of the legal framework surrounding donor arrangements in India to make informed decisions about your treatment plan.

Requirements for Non-Resident Citizens to Get IVF Treatment in India

Here's a breakdown of the general requirements for non-resident citizens (foreign nationals) to get IVF treatment in India:

Medical Visa:

  • A valid medical visa is mandatory for undergoing any medical treatment, including IVF, in India. This visa allows you to stay in India for a specific period for medical purposes.
  • You'll need to obtain the visa from the Indian embassy or consulate in your home country.
  • The medical visa application process typically requires documentation like:
    • Medical report: A letter from your doctor explaining your need for IVF treatment.
    • Treatment plan: A document outlining the intended course of treatment from the Indian fertility clinic.
    • Proof of funds: Documentation demonstrating sufficient financial resources to cover treatment costs and living expenses in India.

Clinic Selection and Consultation:

  • Research and choose a reputable fertility clinic in India with experience handling international patients.
  • Many clinics offer online consultations or resources in English to facilitate communication.


  • Prepare necessary documents for the clinic, which might include:
    • Passports and valid visas for both partners.
    • Medical records related to your infertility diagnosis and past treatments (if any).
    • Semen analysis report (for male partner).
    • Previous fertility treatment records (if applicable).

Other Considerations:

  • Legalities: Surrogacy laws in India are specific. Gestational surrogacy is only allowed for altruistic purposes (no commercial compensation for the carrier) and for married Indian couples or ever-married single Indian women (widows or divorced).
  • Egg/Sperm Donation: Egg or sperm donation for IVF might be an option depending on your situation and the clinic's regulations. Legal and ethical aspects of donation need to be carefully considered.
  • Travel and Logistics: Plan for travel, accommodation, and potential extended stays in India depending on the treatment process and recovery time.

Restrictions on Relatives from Abroad Donating Gametes for IVF

No, according to the current legislation in India, relatives cannot donate gametes (eggs or sperm) for In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) or other assisted reproductive treatments. Here's a breakdown of the relevant law:

  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021: This act governs donation of gametes in India.

Key takeaways:

  • Relatives as donors: The law doesn't permit egg or sperm donation from relatives, including those from abroad.
  • Authorized donors: Anonymous donors from authorized sperm or egg banks are used for these procedures in India.

Alternatives to consider:

  • Donor sperm/egg banks: If you require sperm or egg donation, authorized sperm or egg banks (ART banks) in India can be explored. Rigorous screening processes ensure donor health and compatibility.
  • Exploring options abroad: Surrogacy laws with different regulations regarding known donors might exist in other countries. However, pursuing such avenues would involve navigating legalities and logistics of cross-border surrogacy, which can be complex.

Important next steps:

  • Consult a fertility specialist: Discuss your specific situation and family planning goals with a qualified fertility specialist in India. They can provide guidance on legal aspects, available options within the legal framework, and recommend reputable clinics that adhere to ethical guidelines.
  • Seek legal advice: Consulting a lawyer specializing in family law and assisted reproductive technologies might be helpful, particularly if you're considering options outside India.

Remember, the legal landscape surrounding gamete donation can be complex. It's crucial to seek professional guidance and ensure you comply with the regulations in place to pursue a safe and ethical path to parenthood.

Charges for Donor Gametes

The cost of donor gametes in India can vary depending on several factors, including:

  • Type of gamete: Sperm is generally less expensive than eggs.
  • Clinic reputation and location: Costs can vary between clinics and regions in India. Major cities might have higher charges.
  • Donor characteristics: Donors with specific desired traits (e.g., educational background, physical attributes) might command a higher fee.

Here's a general range for donor gamete costs in India (as of June 2024):

  • Sperm donation: Rs. 8,000 to Rs. 15,000 per vial
  • Egg donation: Rs. 1,00,000 to Rs. 1,25,000 per retrieval cycle (This cost might be inclusive of the donor's compensation and some clinic fees).

Additional considerations:

  • Not all-inclusive: The cost might not include all associated expenses. There could be separate charges for blood tests, recipient medications, or storage fees.
  • Legal fees: In some cases, legal fees for contracts or agreements with donors might be applicable.

Donor Selection

The ability to select sperm donors from donor banks in India is a complex issue with legal restrictions. Here's a breakdown of the current scenario:

Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021: This act governs donation of gametes in India.

Donor Selection: Under the current regulations, intended parents wouldn't have the same freedom to choose sperm donors from banks as in some other countries. The selection process is likely to be facilitated by the ART bank you choose. They might have a pool of pre-screened anonymous donors who meet the eligibility criteria set forth by the act. The donors are matched with the intended father as per criteria laid down by the Act & the ICMR guidelines.

Here are some possibilities:

  • Clinic-managed donor pool: The fertility clinic might have its own sperm donor ART bank with profiles of eligible donors.
  • Collaborations with ART sperm banks: The clinic might collaborate with ART sperm banks that maintain sperm donor profiles adhering to Indian regulations.

Focus on anonymity: The act emphasizes maintaining anonymity of both the donor and the intended parents. You likely wouldn't be able to access identifying information about the donor.


  • Consult a reputable fertility clinic: Choose a licensed and experienced clinic that can guide you through the legalities and the sperm donor selection process as permitted under the current regulations.
  • Understand the legalities: Be clear about the restrictions on donor selection and the process followed by the clinic to ensure adherence to the law.

Overall, while sperm donation is an option for eligible couples and individuals in India undergoing IVF, donor selection is restricted. Consulting with a qualified medical professional familiar with the legalities is crucial to understand your options and navigate the process.

Duration of Gamete and Embryo Freezing

In India, the duration for freezing gametes (eggs and sperm) and embryos is regulated by the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act, 2021. Here's a breakdown of the key points:

  • Storage for Embryos: There's no specific time limit mentioned in the Act for storing embryos. However, the legislation emphasizes using embryos for a successful pregnancy within a reasonable timeframe.
  • Storage for Eggs and Sperm: The Act doesn't explicitly mention a storage time limit for eggs and sperm. In practice, fertility clinics in India typically follow guidelines set by international organizations like the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The ASRM recommends a storage limit of up to 10 years for eggs and sperm.

Important Considerations:

  • Age is a factor: While there's no legal limit, it's important to consider the impact of age on egg and sperm quality. Pregnancy success rates with frozen eggs or sperm generally decline with increasing storage duration.
  • Renewal of consent: Clinics might require periodic renewal of consent forms for continued storage of gametes or embryos.
  • Clinic policies: Specific storage duration policies might vary among fertility clinics in India. It's crucial to consult the chosen clinic for their specific guidelines and storage fees.


Discuss your fertility preservation goals and storage options with a qualified fertility specialist in India. They can guide you based on your individual situation, considering factors like age, intended use of frozen gametes/embryos, and the clinic's specific policies.

Unmarried Woman Accessing ART in India

Yes, you absolutely have options for conceiving through Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) in India as an unmarried woman. The legal landscape has changed in recent years. Here's a breakdown of the situation:

Legal Eligibility:

  • The Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2021: This bill, enacted in January 2023, explicitly allows single women, including unmarried, divorced or widowed women, to access ART services in India.
  • Previously: Prior to this bill, only married couples were eligible for ART procedures.

What this means for you:

  • You can legally undergo fertility treatments like In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) or Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) at a licensed ART clinic in India.
  • You don't require marriage to be eligible for these procedures.

Additional points to consider:

  • Sperm source: You'll likely need sperm donation to achieve conception through ART. Clinics can guide you through the process of sperm donor selection.
  • Clinic selection: Choose a reputable and ethical ART clinic that adheres to the guidelines set forth by the ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research).
  • Legal agreements: Discuss legalities and establish parental rights with the clinic regarding the child born through ART.

Overall, the legal landscape in India has become more inclusive, allowing unmarried women like yourself to pursue parenthood through ART. Consulting with a qualified fertility specialist can help you navigate the process and discuss the options available to you.

Requirements for Surrogacy in India

In India, surrogacy is governed by the Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021. Here's a breakdown of the key requirements for gestational surrogacy in India:

Eligibility for Intended Parents:

  • Marital Status: Only married Indian couples can opt for surrogacy in India. This includes a legally married woman and man. Of late, the Act has been modified to allow single women to avail this service.
  • Age: The intended woman should be between 25 and 50 years old, and the intended man between 26 and 55 years old.
  • Medical Condition: At least one intended parent must have a medical condition that makes pregnancy risky or impossible.
  • No Prior Children: The couple should not already have any biological, adopted, or surrogate children (with an exception for a child with a severe disability).
  • Indian Citizenship: Both intended parents must be Indian citizens.

Eligibility for Surrogate Mother:

  • Marital Status: The surrogate mother must be a married woman with at least one child of her own.
  • Age: The surrogate should be between 25 and 35 years old.
  • Health: She must be in good physical and mental health, and undergo mandatory medical and psychological evaluation.
  • Altruistic Surrogacy: Surrogacy in India must be altruistic, meaning no commercial compensation can be offered to the surrogate mother beyond medical expenses and reasonable insurance coverage.
  • Maximum Attempts: A surrogate can only go through the surrogacy process once in her lifetime, with a maximum of three embryo transfers per attempt.

Other Requirements:

  • Matching and Legal Agreements: A proper matching process must be followed to connect intended parents with a potential surrogate. Clear legal agreements outlining the rights and responsibilities of all parties involved are mandatory.
  • Medical Supervision: The entire surrogacy process must be overseen by qualified medical professionals at a licensed surrogacy clinic.
  • Parental Orders: After birth, a legal process establishes parenthood for the intended parents, allowing them to obtain birth certificates naming them as the legal parents of the child.

Important Considerations:

  • Restrictions: These regulations restrict surrogacy to altruistic arrangements and married Indian couples or ever-married single Indian women (widows or divorced).
  • Legal Expertise: Consulting a reputable surrogacy agency or legal professional is crucial to navigate the legal aspects and ensure a smooth surrogacy journey in India.

It's important to remember that this is a general overview, and specific requirements or processes might vary. Always consult with a qualified medical professional or legal expert for the latest information and guidance regarding surrogacy in India.

Eligibility Criteria for Surrogate Mothers in India

In India, surrogacy is regulated by the Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021. This law restricts surrogacy to altruistic arrangements, meaning there is no commercial compensation for the gestational carrier (surrogate mother). Here's a breakdown of who can be a surrogate mother in India under this act:

Eligibility Criteria for Gestational Carriers:

  • Marital Status:
    • Married woman: Only a married woman can be a gestational carrier in India. This excludes single women, widows, or divorced women.
  • Age:
    • The gestational carrier must be between 25 and 35 years old at the time of the surrogacy procedure.
  • Health:
    • She must be physically and mentally fit to carry a pregnancy. This might involve undergoing medical and psychological evaluations to ensure she is healthy enough for the process.
  • Previous childbirth:
    • The ideal candidate would have had at least one previous successful pregnancy and childbirth of her own.

Additional Considerations:

  • Close Relative: The Act originally mandated that the surrogate mother be a close relative of the intended couple. However, this clause has been challenged, and current practices might allow unrelated surrogates. It's advisable to consult with a reputable surrogacy agency or legal professional to understand the latest legalities and best practices.
  • Number of Surrogacies: A woman can only be a gestational carrier once in her lifetime.

Important Note: Surrogacy laws and regulations can be complex and subject to change. It's crucial to consult with a qualified medical professional and a lawyer specializing in surrogacy law to understand the latest guidelines and ensure a smooth surrogacy journey in India.

Options for Gamete Freezing and Legality in India

Gamete freezing, which includes both egg freezing and sperm banking, is becoming an increasingly sought-after fertility preservation option in India. Here's a breakdown of the available options:

Who Can Opt for Gamete Freezing?

  • Women: Women who wish to delay childbearing due to various reasons (career, education, personal choices) can freeze their eggs for future use in IVF procedures.
  • Men: Men facing medical conditions that could impact sperm production (e.g., cancer treatment) or those who want to preserve their fertility for later can opt for sperm banking.

Legality and Age Limits:

  • Age Limit: Unlike egg freezing, there's no legal age limit for sperm banking in India. Men above 21 can generally bank their sperm.
  • Women: There's no specific legislation regarding the upper age limit for egg freezing in India. However, most clinics set a practical limit around 35-40 years due to the decline in egg quality with age. The legal minimum age to opt for egg freezing can vary by clinic, but it's generally 21 years or above.

Where to Get It Done?

Gamete freezing is offered by many fertility clinics and some larger hospitals in India. It's advisable to choose a reputable clinic with experienced professionals and proper laboratory facilities.

Cost Considerations:

The cost of gamete freezing in India can vary depending on factors like the location, clinic, and specific procedures involved. Here's a general idea:

  • Egg Freezing: The cost typically ranges from INR 1,20,000 to INR 2,50,000. This might include charges for ovarian stimulation medication, egg retrieval procedure, cryopreservation, and storage for an initial period.
  • Sperm Banking: Sperm banking is generally less expensive than egg freezing. The cost can range from INR 30,000 to INR 50,000, including semen collection, analysis, cryopreservation, and storage for a specific period.

Important Note: There are additional storage fees for both eggs and sperm, which usually apply on an annual basis.

Minors Opting for Gamete Freezing:

In India, gamete freezing for minors (below 18) is not permitted unless it is for medical reasons. This is due to ethical considerations and the need for informed consent for such procedures.

Remember: Consulting with a qualified fertility specialist is crucial to discuss your individual situation, understand the legalities and success rates, and explore the available options for gamete freezing in India.

Sex Determination of Embryo Before Implantation

No, sex determination is prohibited under the Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Act and the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act.

If sex determination is needed for medical reasons, then prior permission has to be obtained from the local court to proceed with the process.

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