In males

  • Age There will be decline in the fertility as the age increases.
  • Weight Being overweight or underweight affects fertility.
  • Smoking Smoking impairs the movement of sperm.
  • Alcohol Alcohol intake affects the quality and quantity of sperm and also may cause erectile dysfunction.
  • Semen quality Poor semen quality may cause infertility.
  • Pathological factors
    • Ejaculatory disturbances
    • Epididymal obstruction
    • Testicular failure including Klinefilter’s syndrome, testis tumor, and surgical injury

In females

  • Age Aging may affect fertility.
  • Weight You should maintain a normal weight. Being overweight or underweight affects reproductive cycle delaying pregnancy.
  • Smoking and alcohol Smoking and alcohol increases the risk of infertility.
  • Menstrual cycle Irregular menstrual cycles (short, long, or heavy) affect ovulation.
  • Prescription drugs Some drugs such as antidepressants and antiemetics alter prolactin levels that affect pregnancy.
  • Pathological factors Certain conditions such as endometriosis and fallopian tube disease affect fertility.