Reproductive surgery includes surgery that is related to reproductive health. Urologists and Gynaecologists specializing in reproductive surgery are the leading professionals in conservatively treating both male and female reproductive organs. Various procedures with different goals are included in reproductive surgery procedures. Most surgeries are minimally invasive, meaning they are performed in a single day with less pain, little to no scars and speedy recovery.
Causes of Reproductive Surgery
Some of the causes of reproductive surgery are as follows:
· Hormonal imbalance
· Undescended testicles
· Sexually transmitted infections
· Cancer treatments
· Polycystic ovary syndrome
· Hypothalamic dysfunction
· Premature ovarian insufficiency
· Tubal infertility
· Injuries to reproductive organs
Reproductive Surgery in Females
It is a condition in which tissue that resembles the uterine lining grows on other regions of the body. You may encounter uncomfortable symptoms due to this tissue's unnatural growth, affecting your regular activities. Some endometriosis patients experience difficulties getting pregnant. The uterus's interior lining is called the endometrium. You lose the tissue when you are menstruating. In many circumstances, managing your discomfort and addressing fertility difficulties will be the main priorities of your treatment strategy. This can be achieved through both surgery and medications. The symptoms of endometriosis are frequently managed with medications, including painkillers and hormone therapies.
· Laparoscopy Surgery
A surgical technique known as Laparoscopy enables a surgeon to access the pelvis and the abdomen from the inside without creating large skin incisions. The incision is used to implant a catheter which is then used to pump carbon dioxide gas into the abdomen. Inflating the abdomen gives the surgeon a better view of the organs and more space to operate. The next step is to put the Laparoscope through the tube inserted through the incision. The Laparoscope sends images to the television monitor in the operation theatre, which helps the surgeon to have a clear view of the entire area.
· Hysteroscopy Surgery
Hysteroscopy enables a surgeon to examine your uterus from the inside to identify and treat the sources of abnormal bleeding. During the surgery, your surgeon will use a narrow, highlighted tube called a Hysteroscope to view the inside of the uterus and cervix through your vagina. Hysteroscopy is mainly used to diagnose and treat diseases that result in high menstrual flow, abnormal uterine bleeding, bleeding after menopause and irregular spotting between periods.
Reproductive Surgery in Males
The vein in your scrotum expands, causing Varicocele. A Varicocelectomy procedure is used to get rid of those swollen veins. The reproductive organs will receive the correct blood flow following the surgery. A varicocele in your scrotum might prevent blood from reaching the rest of the reproductive system. The testicles are located in a pouch called the scrotum. Blood accumulates in the veins and scrotum, which enlarges abnormally due to blood being unable to return to the heart through these veins. This may result in a drop in sperm count.
- Varicocele Embolization
Varicocele embolization is often done as an outpatient procedure under local sedation anaesthetics. A minor skin incision implants a tiny catheter or tube into a leg vein close to the hip or a neck vein. Little amounts of X-ray dye are administered to verify where the catheter is. The vein is then filled with microscopic platinum and stainless-steel coils, balloons or other objects. They are used to stop the backflow or the pressure in the varicocele. Other typical routes for blood to leave the testicle are available. The catheter is removed once it has been determined that there is no blood flow in the affected vein.
Purpose of Reproductive Surgery
A vast range of procedures with various goals comprises reproductive surgery. Most reproductive surgeries aim to restore ovaries, tubes and the uterus to normal. Reproductive surgery can be broken down into three categories:
· Surgery to improve the success of in-vitro fertilization
· Surgery as the main treatment for infertility
· Surgery for fertility preservation.
Implantation requires a healthy uterine cavity and a hysteroscopic repair of intrauterine diseases such as metroplasty, myomectomy and polypectomy and improves the likelihood of conceiving successfully. And finally, surgery is crucial for preserving fertility, including ovarian transplantation, ovarian tissue removal for cryopreservation, and ovarian transposition.
• Do not drink or eat anything the night before the surgery. • Consult your doctor before taking any medications. • Bowel preparation is generally advised for patients with pelvic pain or pelvic adhesions and endometriosis. • Use protection for ovulation.
Yes, you will receive general anaesthesia for open, robotic and laparoscopic surgeries. You can choose conscious sedation over full anaesthesia, as Hysteroscopic is a simple process.
The success rate ranges from 60 percent for women below 34 years old. But your chances of having surgery to improve your capacity to carry, conceive and give birth depends on the condition that can be treated with different reproductive surgeries.