Infertility Conditions


When a couple regularly tries unprotected sex but does not successfully conceive, they may have infertility conditions. One in seven couples may experience difficulties getting pregnant. If they engage in regular, unprotected sex, approximately 84% of couples will conceive spontaneously within a year. While it happens immediately for some, it may take longer for others.

If a couple has been trying for a year and still haven’t conceived, it’s a good idea to visit a doctor. Women over the age of 36 and those who are already aware they may be experiencing fertility issues should visit their doctor sooner. A doctor can look for typical reasons for infertility conditions and provide potential remedies.

Infertility Conditions in Women

Problems regarding ovulation, where an egg is released monthly from a woman’s ovaries, are common causes of infertility. Some of these problems completely hinder an egg’s release, while others only do so during specific cycles. The following conditions may bring on such ovulation issues:

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Due to premature ovarian failure, where a woman’s ovaries stop working before they turn 40
  • Thyroid problems, where, for example, both an overactive and an underactive thyroid gland can prevent ovulation

Scarring due to surgery

If a woman has undergone any pelvic surgeries, it may damage and scar her fallopian tubes that connect her ovaries to her womb. Cervical surgeries sometimes scar or shorten a woman’s womb neck, also called the cervix.

Abnormal cervical mucus 

While ovulating, a woman’s cervical mucus becomes thinner to help sperms swim through the cervix more easily. However, if a woman has any problem with their cervical mucus, it may make it harder for them to conceive.


Endometriosis is a medical condition where little sections of the uterine lining, also known as the endometrium, begin to grow in areas other than a woman’s womb, like the ovaries. Infertility conditions may result from this kind of damage to the fallopian tubes or the ovaries. 


Fibroids are non-cancerous growths found in or around a woman’s womb and can cause infertility. For example, they may cause infertility by preventing a fertilized egg from attaching to the woman’s womb or blocking a fallopian tube.

Medicines and drugs 

There is a possibility that some medicines and drugs can affect a woman’s fertility due to their side effects. For example:

  • Neuroleptic medicines 
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 
  • Chemotherapy 
  • Spironolactone 

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

In this infection, a woman’s upper genital tract gets affected, including their ovaries, womb, and fallopian tubes. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) may cause PID, damaging and scarring a woman’s fallopian tubes. Due to this, it becomes impossible for an egg to travel to the womb, causing infertility.

Infertility Conditions in Men

Poor quality Semen and Sperm

A man may suffer from infertility conditions due to poor quality semen and sperm, which may happen due to any of the following reasons: 

  • Low sperm count or absence of sperm
  • Sperms with poor motility  
  • Abnormal sperm shape

Ejaculation disorders

Some men also face issues with their ejaculation, which may make it challenging for them to release semen during sex, causing infertility conditions.


A man’s testicles produce and store sperm. If a man has damaged testicles due to any of the following reasons, it may severely affect his semen quality:

  • Testicles injury
  • Testicles infection
  • Testicular surgery
  • Congenital testicle defect
  • If one or both testicles did not descend into the man’s scrotum 
  • Testicular cancer


The condition of a low level of testosterone, the male sex hormone involved in sperm production, is hypogonadism, which may happen due to a tumor, illegal substance abuse, etc. 

Medicines and drugs

There is a possibility that some medicines and drugs can affect a man’s fertility due to their side effects. For example:

  • Sulfasalazine 
  • Chemotherapy 
  • Herbal remedies 
  • Anabolic steroids 


Unless a couple has been regularly trying to conceive for at least a year, they typically don’t need to see their doctor about infertility. However, being unable to get pregnant is the main sign of infertility. There might not be any other evident signs. 

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1. How common is infertility?

Infertility affects 1 in 10 women between the ages of 15 and 44.

2. Are there different types of infertility?

Yes, infertility can be of two types, primary and secondary.

3. Can illegal substance abuse cause infertility?

Yes, using illegal substances like marijuana and cocaine can cause severe infertility, like difficulties in ovulation, poor semen quality, etc.

4. What is Unexplained infertility?

In unexplained infertility, no cause can be identified either in the man or woman. Doctors advise IVF treatment to a woman with unexplained infertility who hasn’t conceived after two years of engaging in regular unprotected sex.

5. What are the general risk factors for infertility conditions?

• Age • Usage of tobacco and alcohol • Being underweight • Being overweight • Exercise issues

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