Cervical & Uterine Factors (Fibroids)

Your uterus may develop uterine fibroids, a common form of noncancerous growth. While symptoms are not always present in fibroids, when they are, they might include back discomfort, painful intercourse, frequent urination, and heavy menstrual flow. However, bigger fibroids can be treated with either surgery or medicines.

What are Fibroids?

Leiomyomas, or fibroids, result in excessive growth that is comprised of the muscle and connective tissue from the uterus's wall. Typically, these growths are benign. Your uterus' typical size is comparable to a lemon. During pregnancy, it is where a baby develops and matures.

Fibroids can form a cluster or just one nodule. Fibroid clusters can be as little as one millimetre or as big as eight inches (20 cm). In contrast, they can grow to be the size of a watermelon. These growths can form inside the uterus's wall, inside the organ's main cavity, or even on the outside. Fibroids can range in size, quantity, and placement both inside and outside of your uterus.

Types of Fibroids

Submucosal Fibroids

In this instance, the uterine cavity—where a baby develops during pregnancy—is home to the developing fibroids. Imagine the growths descending into the uterus's centre, where there is now an empty area.

Intramural Fibroids

These fibroids are actually a part of the uterus's wall. Think of the uterus' sides like the walls of a home. Within this muscular wall, the fibroids are expanding.

Pedunculated Fibroids

These fibroids are the least typical form and are also seen outside the uterus. On the other hand, pedunculated fibroids have a short stem that connects them to the uterus. Since they have a stalk before a much broader top, they are frequently compared to mushrooms.

Subserosal Fibroids

This time, the fibroids are external to the uterus and are intimately attached to its exterior wall.

Uterine Fibroid Symptoms

  • Heavy or painful periods
  • Back pain
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Traumatic sex
  • Often urinating
  • Discomfort in the lower abdomen

Causes of Fibroids


The chemicals estrogen and progesterone cause the lining of your uterus to thicken each month during your period. They appear to influence fibroid development as well. Fibroids often shrink after menopause as hormone synthesis decreases.

Extracellular matrix (ECM)

Because they are more fibrous than regular cells, fibroids contain more ECM. Additionally, the ECM retains growth factors and modifies cells.


Genetic analysis has shown genetic variations between uterine fibroids and healthy cells.

Other growth factors

The development of fibroid tumours may be influenced by substances in your body that assist with tissue maintenance, such as insulin-like growth factors.

Risk Factors Associated with Fibroids

  • Pregnant,
  • Older than 30 years old,
  • High body mass index.

Diagnosis of Fibroids


A screen showing photos of your uterus is created by ultrasound using high-frequency sound waves. Your doctor will then be able to inspect the internal organs and any fibroids that may be there. Since the ultrasound wand is placed within the vagina during a transvaginal ultrasound, the uterus is more likely to be visualized clearly.

Pelvic MRI

Images of your uterus, ovaries and other pelvic organs are produced by this detailed imaging examination.

When to see a doctor?

Consult a physician if you have:

  • Pelvic discomfort that persists
  • Very lengthy, painful, or heavy periods
  • Bleeding between cycles or spotting
  • Inability to fully empty your bladder
  • Anaemia

If you have extreme vaginal bleeding or rapid onset of intense pelvic discomfort, seek immediate medical attention.


A lot of people encounter fibroids at some point in their lives. Fibroids can occasionally be tiny and have no symptoms at all. Sometimes fibroids might provide difficult symptoms. If you feel any discomfort or pain, see your healthcare professional.

1. Can cancer develop from fibroids?

The majority of fibroids are benign (not cancerous). Rarely will a fibroid become cancer. Leiomyosarcoma is the term for this. It is not more likely to get a malignant fibroid if you have fibroids.

2. What is a cervical fibroid?

The benign, spherical, smooth cervical myomas, also called cervical fibroids, are mostly made of muscle tissue. These myomas are uncommon and can be seen in the cervix, which is the bottom portion of the uterus.

3. Should cervical fibroids be surgically removed?

Treatment is usually not necessary if the fibroids are asymptomatic or do not bother you. On the other hand, depending on the degree of your symptoms if your fibroids are causing you discomfort and other issues, you can pick from a variety of therapies.

4. What are the causes of a woman's fibroid?

Although the specific etiology of fibroids is uncertain, the oestrogen hormone has been associated with them. The female reproductive hormone generated by the ovaries is called oestrogen.

5. What is the ideal course of action for fibroids?

Myomectomy removes fibroids while leaving the uterus intact. Myomectomy is the recommended course of action for fibroid-symptomatic women who intend to have children in the future.

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