According to the WHO, infertility affects between 48 million couples and 186 million people worldwide. Infertility is a medical condition of the male or female reproductive system characterized by the inability to conceive after engaging in frequent, unprotected sexual activity for at least a year. To know the underlying causes of infertility a series of screening tests are performed for both men and women.
Female Screening Tests.
After thoroughly discussing a woman's menstruation history and past pregnancies the doctor suggests the following test:
1. Ultrasound - Sonohysterogram (SHG)
A shonohysterogram or SHG is an examination to check the condition of the uterus and the uterine cavity (endometrium). SGH involves ultrasound using a saline solution to outline the uterus and uterine cavity. The main purpose of SHG is to look for abnormalities.
2. Endocrine Assessment
An endocrine examination is an initial step for women who are experiencing problems getting pregnant. It is a type of blood test used to detect endocrine disorders and infertility. Endocrine evaluations are performed by doctors to:
- Determine the patient's body's levels of hormones.
- Ensure that the endocrine system is in good shape.
- Identify the root cause of endocrinological disorders.
3. Ovarian Reserve Testing
The ability of the ovary to produce egg cells capable of fertilization, resulting in a healthy foetus, is known as ovarian reserve. Ovarian Reserve Testing or ORT is done to test the ovarian reserve in a woman. The high the ovarian reserve, the higher the chances of becoming pregnant.
4. Tubal Assessment- Hysterosalpingogram
A Hysterosalpingogram is an X-ray dye test used to outline the internal structure of the uterus and fallopian tubes. The main purpose of HSG is to look for blockages in the fallopian tubes which are one of the underlying causes of infertility.
In a Hysteroscopy the doctor inserts thin telescope-like equipment through the cervix into a woman's uterus. It allows the doctor to view and image the area to look for any abnormalities in the uterus.
HyCoSy/HyFoSy is a technique that uses ultrasound and foam gel to screen women for blocked fallopian tubes. During the procedure, a catheter is placed into the vagina and a foamy gel is put through it. The fallopian tubes are not blocked if the gel pours over both of them. If the gel does not spill, though, this might indicate a tubal blockage.
7. Immunological Investigation
Immunological infertility is caused by a woman's immune system's rejection of male sperm. As an immunological response, antibodies are generated by the female immune system against male sperm. The immunological investigation is a test done to identify the immunological factors contributing to unsuccessful pregnancy.
Male Screening Tests.
After performing both a general physical examination and a medical history the doctor suggests the following test:
1. Semen Analysis
Semen analysis is carried out to count the sperm present and check for any irregularities in the shape (morphology) and movement(motility) of the sperm. Your semen will also be examined in the lab for issues like infections. To obtain a reliable result, several semen analysis tests are performed. This is due to the fact that sperm counts vary greatly from specimen to specimen.
2. Post Ejaculation Urinalysis
PEU, or Post Ejaculation Urinalysis, is a test used to determine whether sperms are present in the urine. The presence of sperm in the urine indicates that the sperm is travelling back to the bladder instead of flowing out of the penis during ejaculation. This is a condition called retrograde ejaculation.
3. Testicular Biopsy
Testicular Biopsy is a procedure in which a tiny incision is made in the scrotum's skin for examination. A testicular biopsy is suggested by the doctor after the semen analysis says that the sperm is abnormal and the other tests couldn't find the cause of infertility. If the testicular biopsy results reveal that sperm production is normal, a blockage or another issue with sperm transport is probably to blame for your difficulty.
Although infertility is a worldwide disorder, it can be treated through various treatment methods like IVF. To know the right treatment plan it is necessary to undergo different screening tests that aid in finding the cause behind infertility. The Apollo Fertility, Amritsar offers all these screening tests performed cautiously by trained doctors. If you have been struggling to conceive for a year, book a consultation by dialling 1860-500-4424.
Genetic factors are frequently connected to infertility in couples.
IVF also referred to as in vitro fertilisation, is a method used to aid in conception. In IVF, human eggs are fertilised in a lab using sperm and then transplanted into the uteruses.
Laparoscopy is a surgical treatment that involves inserting a fibre-optic instrument through the abdominal wall in order to observe the organs in the belly or to enable small-scale surgery.
Scrotal ultrasound uses sound waves to provide images of a male's testicles and surrounding tissues.
The following are the risk factors of infertility: • Age. • Diabetes. • Excessive drinking. • Over-exercising. • Smoking. • Stress. • Addiction to drugs. • Weight issues (obesity or underweight).