PCOS (Polysystic Ovary Syndrome)

What is PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is an imbalance of hormones that happens when the ovaries make too many male hormones. If you suffer from PCOS, your ovaries make a lot of hormones called androgens, which is not normal. This throws off the balance of your reproductive hormones. Because of this, women with PCOS often have irregular menstrual cycles, miss periods, and ovulate at different times. If you don't ovulate, small cysts may form on your ovaries. PCOS is among the most common reasons why women are unable to conceive.

The Common Symptoms of PCOS

The most prevalent PCOS symptoms include:

  • Abnormal menstruation is characterized by missed menstruation cycle or not having menstruation at all. It may also entail severe menstrual bleeding.
  • Abnormal hair growth is characterized by excessive facial hair and dense hair growth on the chest, arms, and belly (hirsutism). This affects approx. 70% of PCOS-affected women.
  • PCOS can lead to acne, particularly on the back, chest, and face. This acne may persist after adolescence and may be challenging to treat.
  • Approximately 80% of females with PCOS are obese or overweight and have difficulty shedding weight.

What causes PCOS?

The precise reason for PCOS is unknown. Among the variables that may have a role are:

  • Insulin resistance

Insulin enables cells to use glucose, the body's major energy source. It is produced by the pancreas. If cells develop resistance to the function of insulin, blood sugar levels may rise. This can prompt the body to produce more insulin in an effort to lower blood sugar levels.

An excess of insulin may lead the body to produce an excess of the male sex hormone androgen. You may experience difficulty with ovulation, the release of eggs from the ovary.

  • Low-grade inflammation

In reaction to infection or damage, white blood cells generate chemicals. This is referred to as low-grade inflammation. According to research, polycystic ovaries are stimulated to create androgens by a sort of chronic, low-grade inflammation found in persons with polycystic ovary syndrome. This may result in blood vessel and heart issues.

  • Heredity

Research indicates that some genes may be associated with PCOS. A PCOS family history may have a factor in developing the disorder.

  • Too much androgen

With PCOS, ovarian androgen production may be elevated. A high level of androgen inhibits ovulation. This indicates that eggs do not grow consistently and are not discharged from the follicles in which they develop. Additionally, excess androgen can cause hirsutism and acne.

When should I see a doctor?

Consult a doctor if you have missed periods or if you experience any other PCOS symptoms such as facial or body hair growth. Also, consult a doctor if you've been trying to conceive for a year or longer without success. So, if you notice these problems visit Apollo Fertility of Brookefield Bengaluru. You can book an appointment at 1860-500-4244.

Treatment of PCOS

Your doctor will base treatment on your signs, medical history, and pregnancy plans.

  • Hormonal birth control: This includes pills, patches, injections, vaginal rings, or intrauterine devices (IUD). Hormonal birth control regulates menstruation, acne, and hair development.
  • Insulin-sensitizing drugs: Metformin treats diabetes. It aids insulin processing. Insulin management can enhance menstrual periods in PCOS patients.
  • Androgen-blocking drugs: These controls PCOS-related hair and acne.
  • Lifestyle changes: Reducing weight and consuming healthier can lower insulin levels.
  • Ovulation-inducing drugs: Ovulation starts a successful pregnancy. Drugs can help PCOS women ovulate. Clomiphene & letrozole are oral, whereas gonadotropins are injected.
  • Surgery: Ovarian drilling removes androgen-producing ovaries to induce ovulation. With newer drugs, surgeons rarely undertake this surgery.


Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a frequent hormone-related disorder. It results in menstruation irregularities, excessive hair growth, acne, and infertility. Whether PCOS is treated depends on a woman's desire to become pregnant. Women with PCOS may be more susceptible to certain health issues, such as diabetes and hypertension.


PCOS can cause a woman's menstrual periods to become irregular, which can make it more challenging for her to conceive a child. The presence of undesirable symptoms, like excessive hair growth on the body and face, is another consequence of having high amounts of male hormones.

Adjustments to a patient's lifestyle are often the first line of treatment that medical professionals propose for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

The symptoms of PCOS can be managed with weight loss, which also increases a woman's chances of becoming pregnant. In the event that modifications in lifestyle are ineffective, medication may be an alternative.

1. How frequent is PCOS?

PCOS is quite prevalent, affecting approximately 15% of females of reproductive age.

2. Can I have PCOS without experiencing any symptoms?

It is possible to develop PCOS without experiencing any symptoms. Many females might not be aware they have the illness until they are unable to conceive or gain weight for inexplicable reasons.

3. How is PCOS diagnosed?

In the majority of situations, PCOS may be diagnosed by medical examination. They may prescribe blood tests or do an ultrasound to aid in the diagnosis.

4. Is PCOS inherited?

To fully comprehend the reasons for PCOS, more research is still being conducted. There is nevertheless evidence that PCOS has a hereditary or genetic component.

5. Can PCOS or its consequences be avoided?

There is no established method for preventing PCOS, but you can take measures to alleviate its symptoms. For instance, consuming nutrient-dense meals, engaging in regular exercise, and controlling your weight might help you prevent PCOS's impacts.

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