Everything you need to know about Menstrual disorders


Menstrual disorders occur when there are disturbances in the menstrual cycle. A regular menstrual cycle lasts 21 to 35 days for most women. irregular periods occur if they are shorter or longer than average.

These menstrual disturbances can include missing, irregular, heavy, lengthy, or painful periods. They may cause due to conditions like pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, infections, diseases, trauma, and some drugs. Menstrual disorders affect 14% to 25% of women of reproductive age.

What are the types of Menstrual disorders?

These are divided based on the length of your monthly cycle and the flow of menstrual bleeding. Here are the most common types of menstrual disorders.

  1. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS): PMS refers to the emotional and physical symptoms that occur in the two weeks before menstruation.

Some of them are anxiety, irritability, mood changes, depression, headache, food cravings, increased appetite, and bloating. 

  1. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD): This disorder is more severe than PMS. It mainly causes due to changes in hormone levels before menstruation. The most frequent PMDD symptoms include irritation, anxiety, and depression.
  2. Amenorrhoea (Absence of Menstruation): Simply, you can call it the absence of menstruation. You may have suffered from the problem of severe menstrual bleeding— no menstrual periods at all. This is common before puberty, during pregnancy, and menopause. 
  3. Dysmenorrhoea (Painful cramps): When you suffer from extreme, long-lasting pains, then you are diagnosed with dysmenorrhoea.

At some point in life, many women experience severe cramps during their periods. These pains are caused by contractions in the uterus. 

  1. Oligomenorrhea (Infrequent Menstruation): Oligomenorrhea is a condition defined by infrequent menstrual cycles that occur more than 35 days intervals.
  2. Hypomenorrhea (Light Menstruation): In the initial years after puberty and before menopause, light or insufficient flow occurs in hypomenorrhea. This is characterized by abnormal and mild menstrual flow.
  3. Metrorrhagia: This disorder is identified as bleeding at irregular intervals, particularly outside of the menstrual cycle's normal intervals.
  4. Intermenstrual bleeding: It is often known as spotting, where bleeding occurs between periods.

What are the common symptoms of Menstrual disorders?

Symptoms may differ with the type of disorder. It also differs from one woman to another.

Physical symptoms may include:

  • Bloating
  • Severe abdomen or pelvic cramps
  • Enlarged and sore breasts
  • Tiredness
  • Nausea and headaches.
  • Migraine
  • Diarrhoea
  • Constipation
  • lightheadedness
  • Weight gain
  • Heavy or light bleeding

Emotional symptoms include

  • Anger, stress, or confusion
  • Mood swings with tension
  • Major depression
  • Uncontrolled weeping
  • Difficult to focus

What are the possible causes of Menstrual disorders?

Irregularity in menstrual cycles may be caused due to different conditions like pregnancy, hormonal changes, physical trauma, psychological stress, infections, etc.

Some other conditions can cause irregular periods. They are:

  • Eating disorders
  • High amounts of prolactin in the blood
  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Heavy exercises
  • Stress
  • Obesity
  • Delayed puberty
  • Abnormalities in genital tracts
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Medicines used for mental disorders (anxiety, epilepsy)
  • Hormonal birth control
  • Complications in pregnancy

When to see a doctor?

Remember your treatment depends on the underlying cause of the disorder. If you have these conditions, call a doctor immediately. Even after having normal cycles, if you suddenly start getting irregular periods. 

If your period occurs more frequently than every 24 days or less frequently than every 38 days. Your doctor may suggest hormonal pills/ shots to control your menstrual irregularity. You can request an appointment easily at Apollo Fertility, Varanasi, for a consultation by calling 1860-500-4424. 

Diagnosis and Tests:

A healthcare professional can use your medical history to assess whether a menstruation problem is caused by another medical condition. Keep track of the number and length of your cycles to prepare. Blood tests, Ultrasound scans, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy can be used to diagnose menstrual disorders.

Remedies/ Treatment:

Doctors may suggest some lifestyle tips to control your irregular periods. These tips may include weight management, a healthy diet, and stress control. Menstrual abnormalities are often treated based on the type of irregularity and specific lifestyle factors. 

Medications may include oral contraceptives, progestin, Anti-inflammatory medications, Hormone releasing Intra uterine devices, and hormonal therapy. Surgery is preferred only when fibroids or polyps are seen in the uterus or ovaries.


Menstrual disorders are disturbances in the menstrual cycle that result in missed or irregular periods, as well as heavy bleeding. They may be caused due to various physical and mental illnesses. These can be diagnosed and can be treated with medications. Ultrasound and laparoscopy tests can help assess the type and severity of the disorder

1. What is the major cause of a menstrual disorder?

Pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, infections, illnesses, trauma, and some medicines are some of the causes.

2. How widespread are menstrual disorders?

An estimated 14% to 25% of women of reproductive age experience irregular periods.

3. Can menstruation irregularities lead to infertility?

Infertility can be caused by abnormal menstruation. They may be caused by conditions like PCOS, and uterine fibroids. Seek a doctor's help for better treatment.

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