What Is Egg Donation?

Egg donation is a process to conceive when natural pregnancy is not possible. A mature egg is taken from a donor, fertilized with sperm, and planted into the recipient.

Egg donation is a fairly complex process. It may take up to several months for the complete process to happen.

Terms to Know

Medical procedures can be complex, especially when it is about a child and a mother. The complexity is easier when one understands what procedures they are going through, and what all the big terms mean.


An egg is a female reproductive cell. It is produced in the ovaries, which are the female reproductive (birth-giving) options. One egg is released every month and is shed during menstruation if not fertilized by a sperm cell.


The female person who gives the egg for fertilization. It is important to know that an egg might at times be referred to as ovum or gamete.


The person in whom the fertilized egg is planted for the embryo to form.


When the egg is fertilized with the sperm, which is the male reproductive cell, it forms an embryo, and then it is introduced into the recipient’s uterus to form a fetus.


The full form of IVF is in vitro fertilization. It is the process of fertilizing the egg with the sperm in the laboratory and planting it in the uterus of the recipient. This is done in a special IVF laboratory.

Who is an egg donor?

An egg donor is a healthy human female who is willing to donate her egg to someone who needs it.

The egg donor is usually twenty-one to thirty-two years old. Some tests are done to check if she is fit to donate the egg.

  • The egg donor should be twenty-one to thirty-two years of age.
  • They should have a regular menstruation cycle.
  • Should have a healthy BMI of less than 30.
  • Must not have a serious case of endometriosis.
  • Preferred not to have psychiatric hospitalization in the family.
  • Should not have genetic disorders or cancer.
  • The donor goes through tests for HIV, chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and other contractual diseases.
  • It is also checked that the donor does not have the cystic fibrosis gene.

What is the egg donation process?

The egg donation process in India is long and one needs to have patience. Good things take time.

Choosing the Donor

The donor is chosen based on various criteria as mentioned above. It is made sure the donor can go through medication and the procedure without harming themselves.

Syncing Cycles

It is crucial to sync the ovarian cycle of the donor and recipient. For this to happen the donor is under medication to suppress the menstrual cycle. The medication also helps the donor produce several eggs in one cycle.

Collection of Egg

The mature egg is collected from the donor and the donor's work is done here.


The egg is fertilized in an IVF lab and the embryo forms.

When the time is ready the recipient will have to take progesterone to prepare for the transplant.

Transfer of Embryo

This embryo is transferred to the recipient's uterus three to five days after fertilization.

What are egg donation rules in India?

  • The candidate or the donor must adhere to all the criteria for being an egg donor.
  • The clinic must have the license to perform the transfer.
  • The donor can be either anonymous or known.
  • The patients should get all the required information from the clinic.
  • The clinics are bound to let the patients know their success rates.

Click here to read all the legal codes of conduct about egg donation in India.

How to become an egg donor?

Egg donation in India is anonymous can sign up for a donor program if one wishes to donate eggs. Or they can go to a nearby IVF clinic for signing up.

Is egg donation safe?

Egg donation is a medical process and like any other medical process, it has its complications. Points their success rates in India:

  • There will be a fair amount of needles and injections.
  • A slight chance of OHSS or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
  • Donors should not perform strenuous activities during the period.
  • Egg donors have reported effects later in life like breast cancer and colon cancer.

There are a lot of reasons why a female human cannot or does not want to conceive. It might be because of some genetic disease, age, or low fertility. It might also be because the person does not want to conceive traditionally.

Whatever the reason, every eligible person should have several ways available to them so they can have a child. Egg donation is one such way. There are other ways like surrogacy and adoption.

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