Reproductive surgeries are conducted by specialized urologists and gynaecologists. A wide range of operations is included in the reproductive surgery, that are designed for different problems. A majority of operations are done for restoring normal tubes, ovaries, and uterus. There is more prevalence in the use of assisted reproductive technology. Surgeries related to ovaries and fallopian tubes are less commonly performed nowadays. However, there are many problems related to the reproductive system where reproductive surgery is the ultimate solution. The following are the types of surgeries which are performed for treating various problems of the reproductive system of women:
Laparoscopy: For diagnosing and treating endometriosis, laparoscopy can be performed in a single procedure. A tiny incision is made below the navel, by the surgeon. Further, a small telescope with a fibre optic camera attached to it is placed into the abdominal cavity, through the incision. This allows the doctor to visualize any abnormal tissue or scarring. Additional small incisions can be done for introducing instruments if surgery needs to be performed. For achieving fertilization and successful implantation in the uterine cavity, the sperm and egg take the path of the fallopian tubes. One can suffer from the inability to reproduce due to the disorders of the fallopian tubes as the egg and sperm cannot meet in this case. Fallopian tubes can get blocked due to endometriosis, prior pelvic infection or even surgery. The trapping of fluid in the blocked tube leads to hydrosalpinx. For diagnosing and treating these disorders, the surgeon often performs a laparoscopy.
Mini-laparotomy: For reaching the affected areas, the surgeon creates an incision in the abdominal wall. The surgeon then explores the pelvis and performs mini-laparotomy through a small incision which is situated above the pubic bone, to correct the problem.
Laparotomy: In a laparotomy, an incision is made in the lower abdomen. This procedure is performed for treating severe pelvic diseases. After the surgery, the patient requires a recovery period of 4–6 weeks. In this surgery, the surgeon can access all the structures of the pelvis directly, due to the incision which is made in the lower abdomen.
Hysteroscopy: Recurrent miscarriages, severe anaemia, and excessive uterine bleeding are caused by fibroid tumours. These can be removed by outpatient hysteroscopy and laparotomy. In the hysteroscopy procedure, the surgeon removes the adhesions or fibroids inside the uterus by using a narrow fibre optic telescope which is inserted into the uterus through the cervix to locate the fibroids inside.
Tubal Fertility Surgery: Tubal fertility surgery is performed for treating endometriosis and pelvic scarring. This surgery improves the chances of conceiving naturally. Tubal sterilization is reversed in tubal surgery for increasing fertility. In some cases, the tubes which were blocked by infection or endometriosis are opened at the proximal end arising from the cornu or at the distal end next to the hydrosalpinx.
Microsurgery: Microsurgeries of the reproductive system involve reanastomosis, microsurgical tubal reversal, and anastomosis. These techniques can be used to treat infections caused to a tube by corneal damage or after burning, clipping, tying or cutting the tubes.