What is Immunology?
Our immune system defends us against infection using a number of different ways. Diseases including cancer, allergies, and autoimmunity can develop if the immune system isn't functioning properly. The medical study of immune systems is covered under the medical field of immunology. It is a subfield of biology and medicine.
What do you mean by Immunological Investigation?
Immunological tests can be done for a wide range of illnesses and disorders, such as to check for allergies, screen for bowel cancer, or determine a woman's pregnancy. They may be used to do standard testing at clinics, hospitals, and laboratories, as well as rapid tests you can perform at home and in the offices of general practitioners and specialists.
How does Immunological Investigation work?
Immunological methods can be used to identify specific chemicals or infections (germs) in your body. Among all the substances that can be identified are viruses, hormones, and the haemoglobin blood pigment. Our body’s antibodies can get attached to a particular germ or chemical. They catch the contaminants or pathogens, destroy them, and draw them into other immune cells. In order to create artificial antibodies which match the material or pathogen under investigation for the immunological tests employed in laboratories. These antibodies get attached to the appropriate material or germ if it is there when they come into contact with a test sample. This response demonstrates the presence of the germ or substance.
What Happens In the Investigation?
Specific antibodies used in immunological testing bind to the chemical or pathogen sample being tested for. This response may be seen with the bare eyes in some experiments. As a matter of fact, the blood coagulates (clots) on the test card during testing to identify your blood type. Some assays require a fluorescent dye or an enzyme to make the reaction evident.
Types of Immunological Investigation
The immunological investigation can be divided into two segments:
- Rapid Tests
The Raid Tests are the quickest method of the tests. But it is not as accurate as the tests that take place in Laboratory. In Rapid tests, we usually use test strips to find the antibodies, but sometimes, glass is also used. But the main drawback of this test is it can not determine the exact amount of germs present in the test sample due to its accuracy issue.
- Laboratory Tests
In the case of Laboratory Tests, Sensitive devices are used to calculate the number of bound antibodies. The more the material or germ is present in the sample, the stronger the response will be, and so the accuracy. Rapid tests are quicker, but laboratory testing is more accurate. You can get reliable findings by going to a facility focusing on various Immunological Investigations. If you are looking for a good laboratory with all the facilities, you can visit or request an appointment at Apollo Fertility, Brookefield, by calling this number 1860-500-4424.
Why do we need Immunological Investigations?
- Screening of Bowel Cancer: The haemoglobin blood pigment, a marker of blood in the stool, is what this test looks for. Haemorrhoids, polyps, or even colon cancer are just a few of the conditions that can result in blood in the stool.
- Allergy tests: To find antibodies against Allergy-triggering substances like grass pollen or certain foods in the test sample.
- Detection of germs causing an infection: The tests check for Streptococcus bacteria if it is suspected that the patient has bacterial tonsillitis or scarlet fever. There are tests that can find the Borrelia bacteria that cause Lyme disease after a tick bite, as well as tests that can find antibodies to the Borrelia bacteria. Viral detection can also be done using immunological investigations. Hepatitis C, HIV, and HPV viruses are a few examples. Women who are expecting can get a blood test to see if they are immune to toxoplasmosis or protected from it.
- To detect heart attacks and thrombosis: Higher amounts of a particular protein are discovered in the blood shortly after a heart attack or in cases of thrombosis. Immunological testing can be used to find these.
When should I take an Immunological Test?
- If you fall sick several times in a shorter span, you must take an immunological Test to check your immunity.
- If you are facing any abnormalities in your health condition, get yourself tested.
Immunology laboratory tests are carried out to determine how well your immune system is functioning. Your doctor could request these tests if you haven't been able to get rid of an illness. Additionally, immunology tests are carried out to look for autoimmune illnesses.
Usually, in the case of Laboratory Tests, they will get your findings in one to three days. And for Rapid Tests, you will get your result instantly.
Normal Ranges Adult: IgG 6.0 - 16.0g/L. IgA 0.8 - 3.0g/L. IgM 0.4 - 2.5g/L.