Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD)

What is PCOD?

Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is a medical condition in which the ovaries produce immature eggs. This leads to hormonal imbalances and swollen ovaries. Around 10% of women in the reproductive age group are affected by this condition. PCOD is sometimes referred to as Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The endocrine issues in PCOS cause the ovaries to produce excess androgens, which cause eggs to form cysts.

Symptoms and signs of PCOD

If you are facing one or more of these symptoms, you could be diagnosed with Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD).

  • Irregular or skipped periods: Because of an abnormality in egg maturation, women may experience irregular periods or a delayed menstrual cycle.
  • An increase in androgen levels causes excess hair growth on the face, body, belly, back, and chest.
  • Hyperandrogenism also causes acne, which is seen on the face and back.
  • Hormonal imbalance causes an increase in weight, leading to obesity.
  • Thinning of hair on the scalp.
  • Difficulty in getting pregnant.

Effects of PCOD

  • Depression and anxiety
  • Metabolic syndrome includes high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, gestational diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.
  • Cholesterol and lipid abnormalities.
  • Sleep apnea.
  • Infertility.
  • Thickening of the endometrium. Endometrial hyperplasia may lead to endometrial cancer.
  • Breast cancer

What causes PCOD?

The exact cause of PCOD is unknown. However, some of the factors that increase the risk of PCOD are:

  • Lifestyle: Sedentary lifestyle, eating an unhealthy diet.
  • Obesity: Increased body weight.
  • Hormonal imbalance causes women to skip menstrual periods and makes it harder for them to get pregnant.
  • Genetic factors
  • Insulin resistance.

When should I see a doctor?

This condition must be diagnosed and treated at the earliest possible time. Preventive measures may reduce the risk of long-term complications. You should see a doctor if you are experiencing skipped menstrual cycles, have difficulty conceiving or are worried about your periods. Consult your doctor for a diagnosis and treatment. You can request an appointment at Apollo Fertility, Guwahati, for a consultation by calling 1860 500 4424.


There is no specific test to confirm Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Your doctor will diagnose the condition based on your medical history, family history, menstrual history, signs and symptoms, physical examination, pelvic examination, hormonal blood tests, and an ultrasound. Enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts are seen in an ultrasound.

For more information about PCOD, visit or book an appointment easily at Apollo Fertility, Guwahati, for a consultation by calling 1860 500 4424.


Treatment usually starts with lifestyle modifications that include:

  • Losing 5 to 10 percent of body weight can help regulate your menstrual cycle. Weight loss helps improve cholesterol levels, lower insulin, lower diabetes risk, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Have a balanced diet. Avoid junk foods, sweets, carbs, sugars, and ice cream. Eat a balanced diet with lots of fruits and vegetables, fibre-rich foods, and a low-fat diet.
  • Intermittent fasting also aids in sugar reduction.
  • Cardiovascular exercises, high-intensity interval training exercises for at least 20 to 30 minutes, are recommended five days a week
  • Based on the symptoms, medicines can help regulate the menses and treat PCOD symptoms like acne and hair growth.

1. Why are PCOD women's menstrual cycles irregular?

In a normal menstrual cycle, the egg is produced every month in the ovary. The matured egg is released for fertilization. Conception happens when the egg fertilizes with the help of sperm in the uterus. In PCOD women, the egg is not released and gets entrapped in the ovary. This leads to the growth of many cysts, called the polycystic ovary. When the egg is not released, periods become irregular.

2. Should I be concerned about my acne, which has been bothering me for a long time?

Yes. You may be at risk of having PCOD. Women with PCOD may not show all the symptoms. Proper testing advised by your gynecologist can help determine if you have PCOD.

3. What is the difference between PCOD and PCOS?

In PCOD, cysts formed on the ovaries may reduce with lifestyle changes, and infertility issues can be cured by lifestyle modifications. In PCOS, multiple cysts formed on the ovaries may stop releasing eggs, leading to infertility, miscarriages, and other serious health complications.

4. I have been diagnosed with PCOD. Can I conceive naturally?

PCOD can make it challenging to conceive. Women with PCOD can get pregnant naturally by leading a healthier lifestyle and controlling their diet. Regular checkups and consultations with your doctor can help you track your progress in managing PCOD.

5. I was recently diagnosed with PCOD. Can I develop diabetes during my pregnancy?

PCOD causes insulin resistance. The risk of developing gestational diabetes during your pregnancy is high. If you are aware of your condition, take adequate dietary precautions and make all necessary lifestyle changes to manage your symptoms. Consult your doctor about dietary restrictions due to PCOD and insulin resistance, especially during pregnancy.

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