Infertility Conditions

What is an infertility condition?

Infertility conditions are the factors that cause infertility. Infertility is a disease in which couples attempt to get pregnant for over a year but are unable to get pregnant or bear a child. The cause of this failure is found to be one-third due to male problems, one-third due to female problems, and one-third due to both male and female problems or unknown reasons.

There are two types of infertility: primary and secondary. The primary is when a woman has never been pregnant, even after attempting to conceive for one year. Secondary is what happens when women do not get pregnant again after at least one successful pregnancy.

symptoms of infertility conditions

The prime, obvious, and only possible symptom of infertility is an inability to get pregnant. Apart from it, the following are the symptoms in men and women:

  • If a male has issues with sperm
  • If a male has a history of sexual or functional reproductive organ problems,
  • If the female is 35 or older
  • If a woman suffers from menstrual problems,
  • If the female had several miscarriages,
  • If either of your spouses has a known fertility issue,
  • If either spouse has undergone cancer treatment,
  • Infertility problems within the family of any of the spouses

Causes of the Infertility Condition

Female Infertility

  • Problems in Ovulations

There are several reasons for the disruption of the ovulation process.

  • polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction 
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency
  • excess of prolactin
  • Other causes include eating disorders, substance abuse, thyroid problems, stress, and age. 
  • Tube Infertility (Damage to the Fallopian Tube)

Any damage or blockage in the fallopian tube prevents sperm from getting to the egg or blocks the fertilised egg's movement to the uterus. It may be caused by pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or past surgery in the abdomen or pelvis region.

  • Problems in the uterus: These problems are caused by uterine polyps or fibroids. Uterine polyps are small, non-cancerous growths in the endometrium, and uterine fibroids are masses of tissue attached to the wall of the uterus.
  • The problem in the cervix: The issue in the cervix could be cervical stenosis, which is the narrowing of the cervix and the inability of the cervix to produce quality mucus to allow sperm to travel to the uterus.
  • Problem with egg quantity and quality: Since birth, women have a set number of eggs that cannot be increased in the future. They may run out before menopause. A chromosomal issue may lead to a compromise in the quality of eggs.

Male Infertility

  • Abnormal sperm production and function: Deficiency in quality and quantity of sperm and its functioning, i.e., whether the sperm is able to penetrate the egg, causes male infertility.
  • Varicocele: This is a condition in which varicose veins grow in size in the sac that contains the testicles, called the scrotum. This is a very common condition and is treated through surgery.
  • Heat Exposure: Overexposure of the testicles to heat, such as using hot tubs or wearing tight clothing, can affect fertility.
  • Genetic Defect: Chromosomal disorder or cystic fibrosis may also result in male infertility.
  • Undescended Testicles: During pregnancy, a child’s testicles develop in the abdomen, which drop down to the scrotum. When they fail to drop down, such a condition is called cryptorchidism. It is treated surgically.
  • Cancer: Cancer treatment, or in particular testicular cancer, may lead to male infertility.

When should I visit a doctor?

It is in the best interest of both spouses to have medical checks at regular intervals, but if they experience any of the symptoms mentioned above, they should immediately visit the doctor.

Diagnosis of infertility

The doctor starts the diagnosis with a physical exam, asks the patient about his or her medical history, and can ask for a fertility test to determine the reason behind infertility.

Female Infertility

  • Blood Test
  • X-ray Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
  • Laparoscopy
  • Ovarian Reserve Examination
  • Saline sonohysterogram (SIS)
  • Hysteroscopy

Male Infertility

  • Semen analysis.
  • Blood test.
  • Genetic testing
  • Testicular biopsy
  • MRI and Ultrasound
  • Another speciality testing, such as evaluating a semen specimen for chromosomal abnormalities,

Treatment of infertility

Treatment depends on the cause of infertility, its severity, the patient's age, and many other factors. The treatment options are as follows:

Treatment of Female infertility

  • Medication: prescribing drugs for infertility due to an ovulation problem like clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins, letrozole, etc.
  • Surgery—laparoscopic surgery and tubal surgeries
  • Reproductive assistance like IVF and intrauterine insemination

Treatment of Male Infertility

  • Changing lifestyle factors
  • Medications
  • Surgery
  • Sperm retrieval

1. What is infertility?

Infertility is a disease in which couples attempt to get pregnant for over a year but are unable to get pregnant or bear a child.

2. What does a blood test check?

A blood test checks hormones, testosterone, and chromosomal disorders.

3. What exactly is varicocele?

This is a condition in which varicose veins grow in size in the sac that contains the testicles.

4. What is the treatment for female infertility?

It is treated through medicine, surgery, and reproductive assistance.

5. What is the treatment for male infertility?

It is treated through medicine, surgery, sperm retrieval, and a change in lifestyle.

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